Keyframe Animation Syntax

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Basic Declaration & Usage

@-webkit-keyframes NAME-YOUR-ANIMATION {
  0%   { opacity: 0; }
  100% { opacity: 1; }
}
@-moz-keyframes NAME-YOUR-ANIMATION {
  0%   { opacity: 0; }
  100% { opacity: 1; }
}
@-o-keyframes NAME-YOUR-ANIMATION {
  0%   { opacity: 0; }
  100% { opacity: 1; }
}
@keyframes NAME-YOUR-ANIMATION {
  0%   { opacity: 0; }
  100% { opacity: 1; }
}
#box {
  -webkit-animation: NAME-YOUR-ANIMATION 5s infinite; /* Safari 4+ */
  -moz-animation:    NAME-YOUR-ANIMATION 5s infinite; /* Fx 5+ */
  -o-animation:      NAME-YOUR-ANIMATION 5s infinite; /* Opera 12+ */
  animation:         NAME-YOUR-ANIMATION 5s infinite; /* IE 10+, Fx 29+ */
}

For the sake of brevity the rest of the code on this page will not use any prefixes, but real world usage should use all the vendor prefixes from above

#Multiple steps

@keyframes fontbulger {
  0% {
    font-size: 10px;
  }
  30% {
    font-size: 15px;
  }
  100% {
    font-size: 12px;
  }
}

#box {
   animation: fontbulger 2s infinite;
}

If an animation has the same starting and ending properties, one way to do that is to comma-separate the 0% and 100% values:

@keyframes fontbulger {
  0%, 100% {
    font-size: 10px;
  }
  50% {
    font-size: 12px;
  }
}

Or, you could always tell the animation to run twice (or any even number of times) and tell the direction to alternate.

#Calling keyframe animation with separate properties

.box {
 animation-name: bounce;
 animation-duration: 4s; /* or: Xms */
 animation-iteration-count: 10;
 animation-direction: alternate; /* or: normal */
 animation-timing-function: ease-out; /* or: ease, ease-in, ease-in-out, linear, cubic-bezier(x1, y1, x2, y2) */
 animation-fill-mode: forwards; /* or: backwards, both, none */
 animation-delay: 2s; /* or: Xms */
}

#Animation Shorthand

Just space-separate all the individual values. The order doesn’t matter except when using both duration and delay, they need to be in that order. In the example below 1s = duration, 2s = delay, 3 = iterations.

animation: test 1s 2s 3 alternate backwards

#Combine transform and animation

@keyframes infinite-spinning {
  from {
    transform: rotate(0deg);
  }
  to {
    transform: rotate(360deg);
  }
}

#Multiple animations

You can comma-separate the values to declare multiple animations on a selector.

.animate-this {
   animation: 
      first-animation 2s infinite, 
      another-animation 1s;
}

#Steps()

The steps() function controls exactly how many keyframes will render in the animation timeframe. Let’s say you declare:

@keyframes move {
  from { top: 0; left: 0; }
  to   { top: 100px; left: 100px; }
}

If you use steps(10) in your animation, it will make sure only 10 keyframes happen in the allotted time.

.move {
  animation: move 10s steps(10) infinite alternate;
}

The math works out nicely there. Every one second, the element will move 10px to the left and 10px down, until the end of the animation, and then again in reverse forever.

This can be great for spritesheet animation like this demo by simurai.

#Browser Support

This browser support data is from Caniuse, which has more detail. A number indicates that browser supports the feature at that version and up.

#Desktop

Chrome Opera Firefox IE Edge Safari
4* 12* 5* 10 12 5.1*

#Mobile / Tablet

iOS Safari Opera Mobile Opera Mini Android Android Chrome Android Firefox
6.0-6.1* 12.1 No 4* 64 57
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